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Chinese Shang Ring adult male circumcision (SC) is a safe and effective procedure which is easy to learn and to perform. By a specially designed small device, male circumcision (MC) can be performed in 5 min. Compared with conventional adult MC (CC), SC has shorter operation time, less blood loss, less pain score, higher appearance satisfaction rate, and lower complication rate. SC was first developed in China. As recent studies have demonstrated that MC reduced the risk of acquiring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection via vaginal intercourse in African countries, SC was introduced into Africa to fight HIV. Other sexually transmitted diseases such as human papillomavirus infection may also be prevented by SC. In conclusion, Chinese Shang Ring, a small device, provides an easy, quick, safe, and effective method to perform adult MC.

Circumcision is an operation to remove a male’s foreskin. It is one of the oldest and most common surgical procedures. A male may undergo this procedure for religious, social, medical, or cultural reasons.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) encourage male circumcision on the basis that it appears to reduce the risk of HIV infection during vaginal sex. However, not all health authorities agree, and the recommendations remain somewhat controversial.

Adult circumcision device is fairly commonly used in the United States. In fact, according to the CDC,  58.3%Trusted Source  of U.S. newborns underwent circumcision in 2010.

It is less common in other Western countries, however. In the United Kingdom, for example, only around 8.5% of males are circumcised.

This article will discuss what to expect during the procedure itself, as well as some possible benefits and risks.

What is circumcision?

Circumcision involves the removal of the foreskin of the penis. The foreskin is the shroud of skin that, when gently pulled back, uncovers the head of the penis.

The surgery is relatively simple. A healthcare professional will free the foreskin from the head of the penis and, in newborns, clip it off in a procedure that only takes a few minutes. In adults, they will remove the foreskin with a scalpel, and it takes around 30 minutes.

They will then either cauterize or stitch the wound with dissolvable sutures.

History

The first circumcisions may have taken place around 15,000 years ago. The procedure then slowly spread across a variety of cultures, especially in the Middle East.

It may have become popular in the ancient world as a public health measure and a way of preventing balanitis. Balanitis leads to swelling and pain in the head of the penis.

This condition might have been more common in ancient societies due to sand building up under the foreskin.

Circumcision became popular in the Western world in the late 19th century, when people began performing the operation in an attempt to prevent masturbation. Many believed that masturbation was associated with conditions such as epilepsy, paralysis, tuberculosis, and insanity.

However, there was little compelling evidence to support these claims. As the newly formed national healthcare systems started facing rising costs, they stopped recommending the procedure.

In the U.S., however, it has remained a relatively common practice, and some major health authorities do still encourage it.

Why circumcise newborns?

A number of factors are associated with neonatal circumcision.

The most common are:

  • religion

  • hygiene

  • health considerations

Some studies have suggested that circumcision  reducesTrusted Source  the risk of urinary tract infection, but more recent findings have contradicted this, with some suggesting that it might actually increase the risk.

Evidence has indicated a lower risk of some sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including syphilis. Circumcised males, using male circumcision device, also appear to be less likely to contract herpes or HIV.

In very rare cases, balanitis or phimosis can develop in an uncircumcised male. With these conditions, the foreskin cannot retract. This requires surgical treatment.

Cancer of the penis is extremely rare, but it appears to be slightly  more commonTrusted Source  in males with a high body mass index (BMI), males with a history of smoking, males who are uncircumcised, and those with a combination of these factors.

Adult circumcision

Circumcision is less common in adults than in children. It takes longer and is likely to involve more tissue trauma. It may also cause more psychological trauma than it does in newborns.

However, it may reduce the risk of certain conditions, including phimosis, paraphimosis, and balanitis.

Phimosis is the inability to pull back the foreskin, leading to pain and urinary problems. It can occur if a male is born with a tight foreskin, or due to scarring, infection, or inflammation. Treatment options include topical corticosteroids or circumcision.

Paraphimosis occurs when the foreskin becomes stuck behind the head of the penis and restricts blood flow to the end of the penis. It can result from a medical intervention, such as the use of a catheter. Paraphimosis is a medical emergency. Without treatment, gangrene can result. Treatment aims to reduce the swelling, but most doctors recommend circumcision after recovery, in order to prevent the condition reoccurring.

Balanitis occurs when the head of the penis becomes inflamed or swollen. This may be due to an STI, thrush, skin irritation, or another skin condition. It is uncommon in circumcised males. Circumcision can prevent balanitis reoccurring.

Circumcision and HIV

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), there is “compelling evidence” to suggest that adult circumcision device reduces the risk of contracting HIV during vaginal sex by  60%Trusted Source .

Circumcision is a relatively safe procedure, and severe complications are rare.

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